Wednesday, April 30, 2008

REPORTS- Iraq Reconstruction efforts

Several recent reports on the status of reconstruction in Iraq have been released this week from the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR) and are in the news.

SIGIR Audit Reports [April]:

Main site --

· 08-011 [April 29, 2008]
Review of Outcome, Cost, and Oversight of Electricity-Sector Reconstruction Contract with Perini Corporation

· 08-017 [April 28, 2008]
Transferring Reconstruction Projects to the Government of Iraq: Some Progress Made but Further Improvements Needed to Avoid Waste

· 08-013 [April 28, 2008]
Interim Report on Iraq Reconstruction Contract Terminations

· 08-015 [April 25, 2008]
Interim Analysis of Iraqi Security Force Information Provided by the Department of Defense Report, Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

· 08-016 [April 24, 2008]
U.S. Anticorruption Efforts in Iraq: Progress Made in Implementing Revised Management Plan

· 08-014 [April 24, 2008]
Progress on Recommended Improvements to Contract Administration for the Iraqi Police Training Program

SIGIR Quarterly Reports

Main site

They just released its most recently quarterly report

Their summary of this report --

Since April 2003, the United States Congress has appropriated more than $46 billion for the relief and reconstruction of Iraq. This Quarterly Report provides a comprehensive update on how that money has been spent, with information on the top five projects in each construction sector, the top contractors by income, an overview of reconstruction management, and SIGIR's new audits and inspections. In addition, with Iraq's oil revenue income on course to hit $70 billion for 2008 "twice what was expected" Iraq is in a position to take on more responsibility for its own reconstruction. The Year of Transfer in Iraq continues, with three major issues unfolding:

* Transferring funding responsibility
* Transferring reconstruction asset
* Transferring responsibility for security

Monday, April 28, 2008

REPORT - Small Vessel Security Strategy

The DHS has just released its "new Small Vessel Security Strategy (SVSS) designed to close security gaps and reduce risks associated with the potential exploitation of small maritime vessels."

Small Vessel Security Strategy (SVSS)

Fact Sheet

Press Release

Report of the DHS National Small Vessel Strategy Summit [a related report]

Friday, April 25, 2008

Friday's Miscellany 04-25-2008

American Enterprise Institute
Iraq: The Way Ahead

Arms Control Association
· The 2008 Chemical Weapons Convention Review Conference Reader

Atlantic Council of the United States
· Blair: Confront and Persuade
· Mullen: ‘We Will Have to Deal with Iran in the Very Near Future”
· Murdoch: NATO Faces ‘Crisis of Confidence’

· Iran Update, No. 117

Brookings Institution
· Freedom, Religion and Democracy in the Age of the 24/7 News Cycle: A Dutch Perspective
· Global Displacement and the Implications for Refugees

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
· Political Reform in China: Leadership Differences and Convergence

Center for American Progress
· Fifteen Years After Black Hawk Down
· Nasty Neighbors: Resolving the Chad-Sudan Proxy War

Center for Defense Information
· The Shambles of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Security

Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS)
· A Poisoned Chalice? The Crisis in National Security Planning, Programming, and Budgeting
· The Shi’ite Gamble: Rolling the Dice for Iraq’s Future

Centre for European Reform
· The EU, Israel and Hamas
· France, NATO and European Defence

Combating Terrorism Center (CTC) West Point
· The Power of Truth?

Congress. House Oversight Committee
· Felony or Military Personnel Waivers
· April 21, 2008 Letter to Under Secretary Chu [From Chairman Waxman commenting on the statistics provided] --
· Felony Waivers by Type of Offense (The charts show the numbers of felony waivers for conviction only, by service and by type for FY 2006 and FY 2007)
· October 18, 2007 Letter to Under Secretary Chu [From Chairman Waxman requesting statistics]

Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
· The Cyclically Adjusted and Standardized Budget Measures
· Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy · Policy Options for the Housing and Financial Markets

Department of Defense Inspector General (DODIG)
· DoD Accounting to Support DoD Personnel During Times of Civil Emergency

Department of Justice
· Summary -- Overview of the Law Enforcement Strategy to Combat International Organized Crime

Foreign Policy Research Institute
· An Israeli View of the Iranian Nuclear Challenge

Government Accountability Office (GAO)
· Antidumping and Countervailing Duties: Congress and Agencies Should Take Additional Steps to Reduce Substantial Shortfalls in Duty Collection
· Defense Infrastructure: Continued Management Attention Is Needed to Support Installation Facilities and Operations
· Export Controls: State and Commerce Have Not Taken Basic Steps to Better Ensure U.S. Interests Are Protected
· Federal Records: Agencies Face Challenges in Managing E-Mail
· Homeland Security: Enhanced National Guard Readiness for Civil Support Missions May Depend on DOD's Implementation of the 2008 National Defense Authorization Act
· Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance: DOD Can Better Assess and Integrate ISR Capabilities and Oversee Development of Future ISR Requirements
· International Boundary and Water Commission: Two Alternatives for Improving Wastewater Treatment at the United States-Mexico Border
· Nanotechnology: Better Guidance Is Needed to Ensure Accurate Reporting of Federal Research Focused on Environmental, Health, and Safety Risks
· Nanotechnology: Accuracy of Data on Federally Funded Environmental, Health, and Safety Research Could Be Improved
· National Transportation Safety Board: Progress Made in Management Practices, Investigation Priorities, Training Center Use, and Information Security, But These Areas Continue to Need Improvement
· Space Acquisitions: DOD Is Making Progress to Rapidly Deliver Low Cost Space Capabilities, but Challenges Remain
· Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Improving the Cost-Effectiveness of Filling the Reserve

Heritage Foundation
· Furthering the U.N.'s Leftist Agenda: The U.N. CERD Committee Report

Hudson Institute
· The Third Road to Serfdom and its Foreign Policy Implications

Human Rights Watch
· Perpetual Minors: Human Rights Abuses Stemming from Male Guardianship and Sex Segregation in Saudi Arabia

Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS)
· China's Rising Influence in Asia: Implications for U.S. Policy [Strategic Forum no. 231]
· Choosing War: The Decision to Invade Iraq and Its Aftermath [Occasional Paper no. 5]

Institute for Science and International Security
· Syria Update III: New Information about Al Kibar Reactor Site

International Crisis Group
· Côte d’Ivoire: Ensuring Credible Elections
· Will the Real Serbia Please Stand Up?
International Relations and Security Network
· Costs of War: Suicide 'Epidemic'
· Israel's Anti-Missile Hunt
· Pakistan's Elusive Peace Dreams
· The World's Food Insecurity

Lexington Institute
· Defense Acquisition Through 2012
· Economic Security: The Coming Era of Re-Regulation

Project on Defense Alternatives
· The Role of Force & the Armed Forces in Post-Cold War US Foreign Policy: What Have We Learned? Cautionary Lessons for the Next Administration

· An Examination of the Relationship Between Usage and Operating and Support Costs for Air Force Aircraft
· Increasing Aircraft Carrier Forward Presence: Changing the Length of the Maintenance Cycle.

Senlis Council
· Chronic Failures in the War on Terror: From Afghanistan to Somalia

Stanley Foundation
· Arab Media and US Policy: A Public Diplomacy Reset
· Implementation: A New Approach to Multinational Coordination in Afghanistan
· Multilateralism as a Dual-Use Technique: Encouraging Nuclear Energy and Avoiding Proliferation
· New Power Dynamics in Southeast Asia: Changing Security Cooperation and Competition
· One UN Pilots: Aligning UN Capabilities in Support of National Development, 39th United Nations Issues Conference
· Policy Memo: Envisioning a Future Multilateral Security Mechanism for Northeast Asia: What’s at Stake for the US?
· The Rise and Impact of Iran's Neocons

US Institute of Peace
· Managing Crisis and Sustaining Peace Between China and the United States
· PeaceWatch [April 2008, v. 14, no. 1]
o Overcoming Rule of Law 'Ad-hoc-cracy'
o Iran: Dialouges of Peace in Islam
o A "Postmortem Long Overdue"
o Sudan "The Sheikh of Creativity" and Other Tales

Washington Institute for Near East Policy
· Bad News or Bad Data? The Debate over Arab and Muslim Public Opinion
· Iranian Parliamentary Elections and Ahmadinezhad's Discontents
· Slippery Polls: Uses and Abuses of Opinion Surveys from Arab States

Tuesday, April 22, 2008

Felony or Military Personnel Waivers

This has been in the news a lot in the last few days so these might be of interest.

The house Oversight committee had requested information on the increase in the use of military personnel waivers. Useful information that has been gathered can be found o their website --

The information includes:

· April 21, 2008 Letter to Under Secretary Chu [From Chairman Waxman commenting on the statistics provided] --

· Felony Waivers by Type of Offense (The charts show the numbers of felony waivers for conviction only, by service and by type for FY 2006 and FY 2007)

· October 18, 2007 Letter to Under Secretary Chu [From Chairman Waxman requesting statistics]

Sunday, April 20, 2008

NDU report on Iraq

This recently released report from National Defense University’s (NDU) Institute for National Strategic Studies has been in the news a lot the past few days so it might be of interest.

Dr. Joseph J. Collins [a professor of National Security Strategy]

NDU INSS Occasional Paper #5 - “Choosing War: The Decision to Invade Iraq and Its Aftermath.” April 2008

Friday, April 18, 2008

Friday's Miscellany 04-18-2008

Aerospace Industries Association
· U.S. Defense Modernization: Readiness Now and for the Future

American Enterprise Institute
· Corruption and Indignation: Windows into Popular Chinese Views of Right and Wrong,projectID.29/pub_detail.asp

Amnesty International
· Secrecy Surrounds Death Penalty

Atlantic Council of the United States
· The Moment Has Arrived: NATO Membership for Albania, Croatia, and Macedonia

Brookings Institution
· Nicolas Sarkozy’s Foreign Policy: Gaullist by Any Other Name

Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute
· The 2007 Ross Ellis Memorial Lectures in Military and Strategic Studies: Is there a Grand Strategy in Canadian Foreign Policy?

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
· Egypt’s Local Elections Farce: Causes and Consequences's_local_elections_final2.pdf

Center for a New American Security (CNAS)
· Sustainable Security: Developing a Security Strategy for the Long Haul

Center for Defense Information (CDI)
· CFE Treaty: Prospects for Reinvigoration and Expansion to Asia

Center for International and Security Studies (CISSM)
· "Ungoverned Areas and Threats from Safe Havens"

James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies
· Preparing for 2010: Striking a Balance between Nuclear Disarmament & Nuclear Nonproliferation

Center for Security Policy
· The FTA with Colombia: The Political Dimension

Center for Security Studies (CSS)
· The European Armaments Sector: The Need for the State to Adapt
· Open Source Intelligence: A Strategic Enabler of National Security

Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS)
· Comparative Connections v.10 n.1.
· Early Warning? A Review of Conflict Prediction Models and Systems
· The Ongoing Lessons of the Afghan and Iraq Wars
· Overcoming Extremism Conference Report
· Shaping a "Conditions-Based Strategy and Plan for Staying in Iraq"
· A Steep Hill: Congress and U.S. Efforts to Strengthen Fragile States
· Venezuela Forum: Conclusions and Future Implications

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
· Central Intelligence Agency Fleet Alternative Fuel Use and Vehicle Acquisition Report - FY 2007

Combating Terrorism Center (CTC) at West Point
· CTC Sentinel, v.1, no. 5, April 2008
o "Al-Qa`ida in Yemen’s 2008 Campaign," by Gregory D. Johnsen
o "The LIFG’s Current Role in the Global Jihad," by Alison Pargeter
o "Al-Qa`ida’s Finances: Evidence of Organizational Decline?" by Matthew Levitt
o "The UK’s Experience in Counter-Radicalization," by James Brandon
o "AQIM’s Expanding Internationalist Agenda," by Andrew Black
o "Nanomanagement: A Challenge to Those Combating Terrorism," by Major Tommy Sowers, U.S. Army
o "After Action Report: Politics 101 for Small Units in Counter-Insurgency," by Jeremy Gwinn, U.S. Army

Committee on the Present Danger
· Atomic Fissures In Iran: The Case for Public Diplomacy

Congress. House Armed Services Committee
· Agency Stovepipes vs Strategic Agility: Lessons We Need to Learn from Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Iraq and Afghanistan

Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
· An Analysis of the President's Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal Year 2009
· Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy
· Policy Options for the Housing and Financial Markets
· A Review of CBO's Activities in 2007 Under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

Council on Foreign Relations
· Access to Justice in China
· Economic Challenges for Climate Change Policy
· Smart Countries, Foolish Choices

Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS)
· "These Young Men Show No Respect for Local Customs"

Department of Homeland Security Inspector General
· Letter Report: DHS Needs to Priortize Its Cyber Assets
· The Removal of a Canadian Citizen to Syria

European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS)
· Kosovo: The View from Serbia

Government Accountability Office (GAO)
· Combating Terrorism: The United States Lacks Comprehensive Plan to Destroy the Terrorist Threat and Close the Safe Haven in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas
· Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands: Pending Legislation Would Apply U.S.
· Defense Management: Observations on DOD's FY 2009 Budget Request for Corrosion Prevention and Control
· Defense Travel System: Overview of Prior Reported Challenges Faced by DOD in Implementation and Utilization
· Department of Defense: Observations on the National Industrial Security Program
· Drinking Water: The District of Columbia and Communities Nationwide Face Serious Challenges in Their Efforts to Safeguard Water Supplies.
· Freedom of Information Act: Agencies Are Making Progress in Reducing Backlog, but Additional Guidance Is Needed
· Highlights of a Forum Convened by the Comptroller General of the United States: Strengthening the Use of Risk Management Principles in Homeland Security
· Homeland Security: Federal Efforts Are Helping to Address Some Challenges Faced by State and Local Fusion Centers
· Homeland Defense: Steps Have Been Taken to Improve U.S. Northern Command's Coordination with States and the National Guard Bureau, but Gaps Remain
· Homeland Defense: U.S. Northern Command Has Made Progress but Needs to Address Force Allocation, Readiness Tracking Gaps, and Other Issues.
· Immigration Law to the CNMI with a Transition Period
· Transportation Security: Efforts to Strengthen Aviation and Surface Transportation Security Continue to Progress, But More Work Remains.

Henry L. Stimson Center
· Vulnerability of Research Reactors to Attack

Heritage Foundation
· The Bush-Brown White House Meeting: A Chill in the Special Relationship?
· Losing Latin America? A Protectionist Congress Is Destroying U.S. Credibility
· Moving Forward to Secure the Border. Heritage Foundation
· Private Faith, Big Government: Understanding the Impact of Marginalizing Religion
· Stalling the Colombia FTA: A Major Blow to U.S. Public Diplomacy
· The War in Afghanistan: More Help Needed

Human Rights Watch
· Coercion and Intimidation of Child Soldiers to Participate in Violence
· Olympic Corporate Sponsors: Rhetoric and Reality
· Denied Status, Denied Education: Children of North Korean Women in China

Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS)
· After the Surge: Next Steps in Iraq?
· Choosing War: The Decision to Invade Iraq and Its Aftermath

Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS)
· Briefing notes from February 2008 IAEA Meeting regarding Iran's Nuclear Program

International Crisis Group
· Assessing the Overall Security Situation in Afghanistan [Speech]
· The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes [Speech]
· Sudan's Multifaceted Crisis [Speech]

Lexington Institute
· Buying Weapons: A Reform Agenda for the Next President

National Security Archive (GWU)
· U.S. Reconnaissance Satellites: Domestic Targets

Spring 2008, v. 38, no. 1
**“Revolt of the Generals: A Case Study in Professional Ethics” by Martin L. Cook
**“The Limits of American Generalship: The JCS’s Strategic Advice in Early Cold War Crises” by Wade Markel
**“The Mythical Shia Crescent” by Pat Proctor
**“Meddling in the Markets: Foreign Manipulation” by Felix K. Chang and Jonathan Goldman
**“China through Arab Eyes: American Influence in the Middle East” by Chris Zambelis and Brandon Gentry
**“The Strategic Importance of Central Asia: An American View” by Stephen Blank

Pew Global Attitudes Project
· Where Trust is High, Crime and Corruption are Low: Since Communism's Fall, Social Trust Has Fallen in Eastern Europe

Proteus USA [Army War College]
55 Trends Series
· v. 1. no. 2 [February 2008]
o Now Shaping the Future of Terrorism
· v. 1, no. 1 [February 2008]
o Now Shaping the Future of Policing

· Comparing Alternative U.S. Counterterrorism Strategies: Can Assumption-Based Planning Help Elevate the Debate?
· Invisible Wounds of War: Psychological and Cognitive Injuries, Their Consequences, and Services to Assist Recovery
· Invisible Wounds of War: Summary and Recommendations for Addressing Psychological and Cognitive Injuries
· Performance Evaluation and Army Recruiting
· Perspectives on the Threat of Nuclear Terrorism [testimony]
· Post-Deployment Stress: What You Should Know, What You Can Do
· Post-Deployment Stress: What Families Should Know, What Families Can Do

Refugees International
· Uprooted and Unstable: Meeting Urgent Humanitarian Needs in Iraq

Strategic Studies Institute
· Baloch Nationalism and the Geopolitics of Energy Resources: The Changing Context of Separatism in Pakistan
· The Evolution of U.S. Turkish Relations in a Transatlantic Context
· Precision in the Global War on Terror: Inciting Muslims Through the War on Ideas

United Nations University (UNU)
· Can we Eradicate Hunger?

US Institute of Peace
· Building for Peace [new website]
· Kenya: Setting the Stage for Durable Peace?

Tuesday, April 15, 2008

REPORT: DSB Task Force on Nuclear Weapons Surety [revised version]

FYI - the Defense Science Board has posted a revised version of their February report. The April 2008 revised version of "The Defense Science Board Permanent Task Force on Nuclear Weapons Surety: Report on the Unauthorized Movement of Nuclear Weapons" is available directly at
or from their main reports page

According to the revised version, they had completed the information gathering in December 2007 but in "April 2008 a data error was discovered" and the report was revised accordingly. "Specifically, report Section III: Nuclear Enterprise Focus was updated to reflect that the Strategic Air Command tanker force was reassigned to the Air Mobility Command (vice Military Airlift Command)."

Saturday, April 12, 2008

Friday's Miscellany 04-11-2008

American Enterprise Institute
· AEI Petraeus-Crocker Hearings Advisory: Kagan Iraq Report
· Cuba the Morning After
· Iran's Global Ambition

American Foreign Policy Council
· Missile defense priorities: the view from Congress: Senator Jon Kyl
· Russia Reform Monitor
· China Reform Monitor
· Missile Defense Briefing Report
· Iran Democracy Monitor

Center for Defense Information
· Are MIRVs and Satellite Integration and Dispensation Mutually Inclusive?

James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies Monterey Institute of International Studies
· Taiwan's Presidential Election and its Impact on Cross-Strait Relations and Regional Security

Center for Security Policy
· Required reading: Doug Feith
· China displaces the U.S. at Ecuador's Manta Base

Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS)
· Facilitating a Dialogue among Senior-Level DoD Officials on National Security Priorities: A Methodological Note - A Beyond Goldwater-Nichols Phase 4 Report
· Iraq and the Crocker-Petraeus Testimony: The Risks that Only Time and a Sustained US Presence Can Deal With
· The Ongoing Lessons of the Afghan and Iraq Wars

Congress. Armed Services Committees [Petraeus and Crocker hearings]
· Senate [April 8th]
· House [April 9th]

Council on Foreign Relations
· Five Years of War in Iraq (Interactive)
· Petraeus, Crocker Gird for Assault on the Hill

Defense Personnel Security Research Center
· Changes in Espionage by Americans: 1947-2007

Department of Defense Inspector General (DODIG)
· Report on the Cost, Oversight, and Impact of Congressional Earmarks

Foreign Policy Research Institute
· An Israeli View of the Iranian Nuclear Challenge
· Robert Kaplan on the New Balance of Power

Government Accountability Office (GAO)
· Defense Acquisitions: 2009 Review of Future Combat System Is Critical to Program's Direction
· Department of Homeland Security: Progress Made in Implementation of Management Functions, but More Work Remains
· Electronic Government: Additional OMB Leadership Needed to Optimize Use of New Federal Employee Identification Cards
· Employee Security: Implementation of Identification Cards and DOD's Personnel Security Clearance Program Need Improvement
· Force Structure: Restructuring and Rebuilding the Army Will Cost Billions of Dollars for Equipment but the Total Cost Is Uncertain
· Governmentwide Purchase Cards: Actions Needed to Strengthen Internal Controls to Reduce Fraudulent, Improper, and Abusive Purchases
· International Trade: U.S. Trade Preference Programs Provide Important Benefits, but a More Integrated Approach Would Better Ensure Programs Meet Shared Goals
· Internet Sales: Undercover Purchases on eBay and Craigslist Reveal a Market for Sensitive and Stolen U.S. Military Items

The Heritage Foundation
· African Development: Promise and Peril
· Lessons Learned from the Basra Fighting for the Iraq Hearings

Human Rights First
· Arbitrary Justice—Trials of Guantanamo and Bagram Detainees in Afghanistan

Human Rights Watch
· Cluster Munitions and the Proportionality Test: Memorandum to Delegates of the Convention on Conventional Weapons
· Five Years On: No Justice for Sexual Violence in Darfur
· Benchmarks, Consultations and Transparency: Making the EU Central Asia Strategy an Effective Tool for Human Rights Improvements
· Double Jeopardy: CIA Renditions to Jordan

International Crisis Group
· Armenia: Picking up the Pieces
· Kyrgyzstan: The Challenge of Judicial Reform

Lexington Institute
· FCS: The Logic of Future Combat Systems

National Security Archive
· Fighting the War in Southeast Asia, 1961-1973

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
· The al-qaeda Media Nexus: The Virtual Network Behind the Global Message

· Finding Candidate Options for Investment: From Building Blocks to Composite Options and Preliminary Screening
· Increasing Aircraft Carrier Forward Presence: Changing the Length of the Maintenance Cycle
· Radicalization or Rehabilitation: Understanding the Challenge of Extremist and Radicalized prisoners
· Small Ships in Theater Security Cooperation
· Turkey as a U.S. Security Partner

· Symamtec Global Internet Security Threat Report Vol. 13

United States Institute of Peace
· Iraq After the Surge: Options and Questions

Washington Institute for Near East Policy
· Who Won the Battle for Basra?

REPORT: Ungoverned Areas and Threats from Safe Havens

A report that may be of interest – it was prepared for the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy and is entitled “Ungoverned Areas and Threats from Safe Havens.” [Abstract below] OR directly


Individuals and groups who use violence in ways that threaten the United States, its allies, or its partners habitually find or create ways to operate with impunity or without detection. Whether for private financial gain (e.g., by narcotics and arms traffickers) or for harmful political aims (e.g., by insurgents, terrorists, and other violent extremists), these illicit operations are most successful — and most dangerous — when their perpetrators have a place or situation that can provide refuge from efforts to combat or counter them. Such places and situations are often called safe havens, and potential safe havens are sometimes called ungoverned areas. A key component of counterinsurgency, counterterrorism, counternarcotics, stabilization, peacekeeping, and other such efforts is to reduce the size and effectiveness of the safe havens that protect illicit actors. Agencies in defense, diplomacy, development, law enforcement, and other areas all have capabilities that can be applied to countering such threats and building the capacity and legitimacy of U.S. partners to prevent ungoverned, under-governed, misgoverned, contested, and exploitable areas from becoming safe havens. To do this effectively requires careful consideration of all the geographical, political, civil, and resource factors that make safe havens possible; a sober appreciation of the complex ways those factors interact; and deeper collaboration among U.S. government offices and units that address such problems — whether operating openly, discreetly, or covertly — to ensure unity of effort. This report offers a framework that can be used to systematically account for these considerations in relevant strategies, capabilities, and doctrines/best practices.